Friday, December 17, 2021

Servers, domain controlers and roles

FSMO Roles

Flexible Single Master Operations (FSMO, sometimes pronounced "fizz-mo") roles are also known as
operations master roles. Although the AD domain controllers operate in a multi-master model, i.e. updates can
occur in multiple places at once, there are several roles that are necessarily single instance:
Role Name Scope Description
Schema Master 1 per forest Controls and handles updates/modifications to the Active Directory schema.
Domain Naming Master 1 per forest Controls the addition and removal of domains from the forest if present
in root domain
PDC Emulator 1 per domain Provides backwards compatibility for NT4 clients for PDC operations (like
password changes). The PDCs also run domain specific processes such as the Security Descriptor Propagator
(SDPROP), and is the master time server within the domain.
RID Master 1 per domain Allocates pools of unique identifier to domain controllers for use when creating
objects
Infrastructure Master 1 per domain Synchronizes cross-domain group membership changes. The
infrastructure master cannot run on a global catalog server (GCS)(unless all DCs are also GCs.)

 

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(DNS) – an
overview
The following is a general, non-technical introduction to the Domain Name
System and how it works on the Internet. If you are looking for specific
information on how the domain name space is organised, how domains can
be acquired, or how DNS servers do what they do, you might want to go
directly to ‘More about the Domain Name System (DNS)’.
What is DNS?
Having a domain, e.g. ‘mycompany.com’, is an important step in
establishing an identity for a business on the Internet. People enter the
domain as part of an e-mail address or a Web address. Really, what the
network uses to route traffic is not domain names as such, but the
corresponding IP addresses. The translation between fully qualified domain
names and IP addresses is taken care of by DNS servers. Thus, one of the
advantages of DNS is that it saves us from having to memorise long IP
addresses because we can use intuitive domain names instead.
The abbreviation DNS is used to describe two related things: the Domain
Name System and the Domain Name Service. The Domain name system is
the distributed database responsible for the domain name-to-IP address
conversion, while the Domain Name Service, as the name implies, is the
service offered by this system.
DNS affects almost every other Internet service, from e-mail, surfing on the
Web, to audio conferencing. For instance, when someone enters a domain
name (e.g. ‘www.company.com’) into the address field of a browser and
sends off the request, they are making use of DNS. Furthermore, DNS
servers (also known as name servers) hold information on what mail server
that e-mail for a given domain should be delivered to, enabling us to use
e-mail addresses in the format ‘username@domain’, which doesn’t specify a
particular mail server.
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How does DNS work?
DNS is a distributed database. DNS service is offered by thousands of DNS
servers on the Internet, each responsible for a portion of the name space
called a zone. The servers that have access to the DNS information (zone
file) for a zone is said to have authority for that zone. When queried by for
instance a Web server, the DNS server translates the domain name into the
corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name
‘www.example.com’ might translate to ‘195.24.22.209’.
When TCP/IP software is installed on a Windows workstation, the IP address
of one or more name server(s) is one of the configured parameters. This is
the name server that the host (or really, the browser application on the
host) should direct its query to when looking for the IP address of for
instance a Web server on the Internet (given that this server has a fully
qualified domain name). It is also the server responsible for telling other
servers on the Internet how to get in touch with the workstation, if this
should be desired (again given that the workstation has a fully qualified
domain name). A fully qualified domain name, like ‘www.example.com’
consists of a hostname (‘www’) as well as a domain (‘example.com’).
No single one of the thousands of name servers on the Internet knows all
the keys for translating domain names into IP addresses and vice versa, but
each server knows the names and IP address of every user’s computer on
its branch of the Internet (zone). The server then exchanges this information
with other domain name servers from other corners of the net, thus
enabling domain name addressed communication between hosts on different
networks.
The Internet would work without DNS, of course, but it would mean that all
traffic would have to be addressed using IP addresses.
More about the Domain Name System (DNS)
The following provides a closer look at the specifics of DNS, including a
description of how the domain name space is organised, how domains can
be acquired, and how DNS servers do what they do.
Pros and cons of maintaining your own DNS server
There are two basic ways to configure DNS. One option is to use the DNS
server of an Internet service provider. The other is to set up a DNS server
on your local network.
Having and maintaining your own primary DNS server leaves the job of
configuring and updating the server on your shoulders. On the other hand, it
also gives you a number of benefits:
Firstly, a local DNS server can give your company a measure of
security. If you are running IP network-based applications inside
your network that require users to connect to internal machines by
name, it is not a great idea to advertise the names and addresses of
these machines. DNS can give hackers a map of your network, so
setting up an internal DNS server that does not publish information to
the Internet can be a good idea.
Secondly, a local DNS server lets you be the master of your own
domain. If your Web site often moves around or changes, managing
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your own primary DNS server allows you to make changes, additions,
and delitions at your own pace without involving your Internet service
provider. For instance you can add hosts and create subdomains
within your domain, e.g. ’subdomain.company.com’ – maybe to
advertise your company’s new exciting product by giving the product
its own Web site on the Internet.
Another important issue is reverse name mapping; some Internet
service providers keep reverse name information only for servers and
not for the individual host systems. In this case, users may not be
able to connect to FTP or other information servers that attempt to
reconcile the user’s hostname with the IP address before granting
access.
Having a DNS server on your local network, however, will mean increased
traffic to and from your network, which you may be billed for. Another issue
to consider is whether your DNS server is to have authority for hosts on
other networks than your local area network, e.g. for the Web server of a
remote branch of your company. If this is the case, access from the Internet
to the Web server on the remote network may be cut off if for some reason
your DNS server could not be reached. (As for Web servers etc. on your own
network, they would be unreachable regardless of where your DNS server
was situated if connectivity to your network was lost.)
The domain hierarchy
The domain name space is organised in a hierarchy comprising a top-level
domain, and/or a subdomain, and/or a hostname. The Internet naming
hierarchy is best understood if a fully qualified domain name, like
‘mail.company.com’ is read from right to left. In ‘mail.company.com’, ‘com’
is the top-level domain,‘company’ is a subdomain under this top-level
domain, while ‘mail’ indicates the particular host – here a mail server.
Generic top-level domains include ‘com’, ‘org’ and ‘net’. Other top-level
domains use international two-letter country codes, such as ‘ca’ (Canada),
‘de’ (Germany), ‘es’ (Spain), and ‘fr’ (France).
Strictly speaking, fully qualified domain names should be written with a dot
at the end (the root zone), e.g. 'mail.company.com.", however, in this
course we imply the last dot.
A fully qualified domain name consists of different parts
Top-level domains and IP network addresses are assigned and maintained
by The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN),
which is responsible for the overall co-ordination and management of the
DNS. A second and third level of domain administrators are responsible for
the hostname and address assignment within the subdomains.
The domain hierarchy can be represented by an inverted tree (also called
the domain name space). At the very top of the hierarchy one finds a small
number of root name servers, which contain pointers to master name
servers for each of the top-level domains. There are currently thirteen such
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root servers on the Internet. These servers all contain identical information -
there are ten servers purely for backup reasons.
The DNS tree: At the very top of the hierarchy one finds a small number of
root name servers. The next level, ‘com’, ‘edu’, etc., consists of top-level
domains, while x and y indicate subdomains (for instance ‘ CompanyX’ and
‘CompanyY’). The hosts,’Computer 1’,’ Computer 2’, etc., reside at the
lowest level in the hierarchy
In the DNS tree, everything under a particular point in the tree (e.g. ‘com´)
falls into that particular domain. In the illustration above, both ‘computer
1´, ‘company X´ as well as ‘company Y´ thus fall within the ‘com’ domain.
The fully qualified domain name of any host in the tree is the path from that
host to the root (‘up’ the tree) with dots separating the names in the path.
Thus the fully qualified domain name of the host ‘computer 1’ is
‘computer1.companyX.com’. All devices in the same same domain share a
part of their IP address.
A DNS server’s zone is all the domain names that the server has been given
authority over. This means that the server has a list of all the domain
names, plus information about how to get to each of them. A zone is a
pruned domain and thus might not include all the subdomains and hosts
within a given domain. The pruning occurs when zones are delegated to
individual servers. The zones thus relate to the way the DNS database is
partitioned and distributed.
If a company uses the mail or Web server of an Internet service provider, it
can use the Internet service providers’ domain (e.g. ‘isp.net’) as part of the
company’s Web address or e-mail address. However, some providers might
allow companies to use their own domain (e.g. ‘mycompany.com’), if the
company has one registered. If a company has its own mail or Web server
and wish to use it for their own domain (e.g. 'mycompany.com'), the
domain must be registered with an official domain name service registry in
order to be reachable for others on the Internet.
Querying a DNS server
When you type in a URL – for instance `http://www.company2.com´– in the
address field of a browser program, a query is sent to the DNS server
(indicated in the hosts TCP/IP configuration) asking for the corresponding IP
address. The DNS server may not contain the information about the
particular destination host. In that case, it will attempt to solve the problem
by forwarding the query to another name server that is higher up in the
domain name hierarchy. If that query is not successful, the second server
will ask yet another – until it finds one that knows.
The path of enquiry follows the domain name hierarchy.
Imagine for instance, that you are working in ‘company1’ and have decided
to take a look at the Web site of your closest competitor ‘company2’. The
domain name for this Web site is ‘www.company2.com’. The following
illustrates the steps involved in converting this domain name into the
corresponding IP address:
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Example of a DNS enquiry path
The query is initiated when you type the domain name of the
computer that you wish to contact, ‘www.company2.com’, into the
address/location field of your browser and hit enter. Upon this
command, your workstation contacts its primary DNS server to see if
it knows the IP address of `www.company2.com´.
1.
The requested domain name does not fall within the zone of
company1’s DNS server, and consequently, the server does not hold
the required information. Therefore, the server turns to a root server
for help. (Root servers are servers, which maintain information about
all the top-level domains). Every DNS server on the Internet must
know the IP addresses of the about 10 root domain name servers.
2.
The root server holds information on the top-level domains, but
usually not on subdomains. The root server therefore passes the
query along to the server which is responsible for the’.com’ domain.
The authoritative server for a top-level domain like ‘.com’ contains
information on which name-server is responsible for each subdomain
in its zone, thus also for ‘company2.com’.
3.
The ‘.com’ server, in turn, refers to the authoritative server for the
‘company2.com’ domain. The DNS server for a subdomain, such as
‘company2.com’, contains detailed addressing information about the
hosts in its zone, including the Web server (www).
4.
Upon receiving the query, the DNS server responsible for the
‘company2.com’ domain looks at its table of hostnames and
corresponding IP addresses and, via the previously queried servers,
supplies your primary DNS server with the IP address of the server
called 'www.company.com’.
5.
Once the information is located and returned to your DNS server,
your server passes the information back to your workstation.
6.
You are on your way! Your workstation is now able to contact
‘www.company2.com’ using the corresponding IP address supplied by
the DNS server.
7.
Usually this entire process occurs quickly (within seconds).
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However, if the server has recently answered a query the same hostname
(within a time period set by the administrator of the authoritative DNS
server's zone to prevent passing old information), it will not have to go
through this whole process again, as it can quickly locate the information in
its cache and reply directly.
In the example above, the DNS servers behave as 'recursive'. A recursive
DNS server takes on the burden of querying other name servers to come up
with a more fulfilling answers to queries than its own data provides. A
non-recursive DNS server, on the other hand, simply looks in its local data
and returns the best answer it has to a given query. In other words, while
the recursive server asks the next server for more information, the
non-recursive server only goes as far as to suggest to the server who
queried it, that it go query someone else!
The DNS is also used the other way around – for instance someone running a
Web site might like to log the names of the computers which have visited
the site. The server programs do this by doing a reverse query (reverse
name mapping), that is, asking the DNS system for the corresponding
domain name for a given IP address.
The DNS records can be examined with a number of common TCP/IP tools.
The most common DNS lookup utilities are ‘NSLOOKUP’ and ‘Host’.
DNS, which was designed in 1984, is one of the key elements that has
allowed the Internet to grow as it has. The old system consisted of a single
file, known as the host table, maintained by the Stanford Research
Institute's Network Information Center (SRI-NIC). If this system had
continued, the static file would not only be absolutely gigantic, but would
also be constantly out of date. With DNS, when any site needs to add or
remove computers, they simply update their portion of the database and,
after a short period, everyone on the Internet can see the change!
Acquiring a domain name
Domain names have to be registered with an official domain name
service registry. There are two ways of doing this. You either pay an
Internet service provider (ISP) to do it for you, or you contact a domain
name registry and complete the application process yourself.
Top-level domains (like ‘.com’) and IP network addresses are assigned and
maintained by The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
(ICANN), which is responsible for the overall co-ordination and management
of the DNS. The ICANN in turn allocates blocks of IP address space to
Regional Internet Registries (RIRs): InterNIC in North America, RIPE in
Europe, and APNIC in Asia. These regional domain registries again allocate
blocks of IP address space to Local Internet Registries (LIRs), which in turn
assign the addresses to end users (with or without the aid of an Internet
service provider).
When a domain name is registered, it is added to the DNS of the top-level
domain. If the domain ‘example.com’ was registered, it would be entered in
the DNS of the ‘.com’ domain.
When registering a domain, the registrant has to supply a (number of)
contact person(s) which is responsible for the administration, technical
maintenance of the DNS server and financing of the domain. One person or
company can be responsible for more than one area.
The three contacts which need to be supplied are:
The administrative contact. This is the owner 1. of the domain, that
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is, the person to contact is someone wants to reach whoever is in
authority of the domain. The technical term for this contact is
ADMIN-C.
The technical contact. This is the person or organisation
responsible for the host mastering of the domain. This is whom should
be contacted if the domain has been set-up wrong, or if changes or
additions have been made to the domain. The technical term for this
contact is TECH-C.
2.
The billing contact. The person 3. who pays the bills.
In addition to the contact information, you also need to supply information
about on which name servers the domain is going to reside. These name
servers are called the authoritative name servers, because they have
authority over the domain, which means that these are the servers that all
other name servers and hosts will ask for information about the domain –
such as the IP addresses of hosts and where to deliver mail.
The authoritative name servers must be updated when a change to the
domain is made. The technical term for this is ‘reloading a zone’.
If you want reverse name mapping (finding the domain name for a given
IP address) to be possible for your domain, you must also register a
so-called 'in-addr.arpa' domain. This is a special domain which has been
added at the top-level of the domain tree to make reverse DNS mapping
possible. It is special in the sense that there can be exactly 256 subdomains
at each level, and that the label names can only be the numbers 0-255. An
example is 1.12.123.195.in-addr.arpa. The registered domains under
in-addr.arpa corresponds to reversed IP addresses (the IP address in the
label name above would normally be written 195.123.12.1). The IP
addresses are reversed because the label to the left is the most specific in a
domain name, while the most specific label in an IP address is the octet to
the right. It is of course only possible to register an 'IP address domain' if
the IP address in question is assigned to you.
Primary and secondary DNS servers
There should always be one and only one DNS server which has direct
access to the DNS information in the zone file for a particular domain. This
DNS server is called the primary domain name server for the domain.
The secondary domain name server is a DNS server which downloads a
copy of the primary domain name server's zone file periodically. Secondary
domain name servers do this by querying the primary domain name server
(usually every 6 hours or so, but the domain administrator can set this check
as often as he or she likes) to see if the primary's information has changed.
If it has, the secondary simply downloads the entire table again from the
primary.
A zone can have as many secondary domain name servers as the DNS
administrator likes. To make them useful, the administrator has to make
sure that the parent level domain DNS administrator knows about them, or
else the secondary servers will never get queried even if the primary server
cannot be contacted.
Some administrators choose to use the primary server as secondary server
as well by entering the primary server in both fields in the domain
registration form. It saves the administrator from having to provide two
servers, but it has the disadvantage that the whole network is unreachable
from the Internet if the server cannot be contacted. However, in scenarios
where the primary name server and for instance a Web server is hosted on
the same computer, this is less of a problem. In this case, the physical set
up means that if the computer cannot be contacted and connectivity
between the DNS server and the Internet is thus lost, having a secondary
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name server on a different network will still not enable anyone to access the
information on the Web server, as the Web server cannot be reached if the
computer cannot be reached!
Resource records
The information that a DNS server needs to answer queries from hosts on
the Internet is kept in a number of resource records (RRs). The information
in the resource records is entered and updated by the server administrator.
The two most common resource records are:
A: The Address Record. This record supplies the IP address for a
given hostname. The hostnames are assigned by the DNS server
administrator. You will need A records for any public servers you
maintain (servers which should be accessible from the Internet). The
most common hostnames are ‘www’ and ‘mail’ that are used to
identify Web servers and mail servers. You may also want to set up A
records for each of your workstations if your users use FTP (File
Transfer Protocol) to download software from the Internet. This is
because some FTP sites perform a lookup to get the domain name of
the machine from which they receive download requests. If the
machine has no name, the site rejects the request. Since hosts can
have multiple IP addresses, corresponding to multiple physical
network interfaces, it is possible for multiple A records to match a
given domain name. Similarly, one IP address may also have several
corresponding hostnames. This may be configured using CNAME
records (se below).
MX: The Mail Exchange Record. This record indicates which host(s)
handles electronic mail for the domain, and offers a method of
prioritising the order of mail servers that e-mails to the domain
should be attempted delivered to. An MX record has two parts: the
name of the machine that will accept mail for the domain, and a
preference value. A domain can have multiple MX records such as the
following: mail1.company.com 0; mail2.company.com 10, and
mail3.company.isp.net 100. In this case, mail delivery will be
attempted to mail1.company.com first because it has the lowest
preference value (0). If delivery fails (for instance because this server
is down or deems the e-mail address unknown), mail2.company.com
will be tried next as specified in the MX record, and so on. Each of the
hosts mentioned in your MX records needs an A record to associate
them with an IP address.
The Mail exchange record is what makes it possible to have e-mail
addresses in the format ‘user@domain.com’ that use the domain without
specifying the specific host (the mail server). If no MX record was created
for a domain, the specific domain of every mail server within the domain
would have to be specified though an entry in the address record (A), and
the e-mail address for the user would look something like
user@mail1.domain.com.
Other DNS resource records include:
SOA: The Start of Authority Record, which indicates the primary
name server (origin), the responsible DNS administrator, the rules
that govern the secondary name servers’ queries to the primary
name server for zone file updates, as well as a default TTL. TTL (Time
To Live) is the length of time that non-authoritative name servers are
allowed to keep the resource records in their short term memory
(cache), before they have to be discarded.
CNAME: The Canonical Name Record, which supplies host alias
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names. It is possible to define multiple A records for a given address,
thus providing alias, or alternate, hostnames. It is usually easier to
supply one A record for a given address and use CNAME records to
define alias hostnames for that address.
PTR: The Pointer Record, which associates a hostname with a given
IP address. These records are used for reverse name lookups.
Reverse lookups can be used to limit access to for instance a server
on the net to those from a specific domain or with a specific domain
name. An example: you have a Web server on the Internet that you
only want certain users to be allowed to connect to. Through a
reverse look up when someone intends to connect to the server, it
can be established if the visitor’s domain is on the list of allowed
visitors and, thus, if access should be granted. Reverse look up is also
useful for companies wishing to monitor what kind of Internet users
visit their Web site.
NS: The Name Server Record, which defines the name server(s)
for a given domain.
Test your knowledge
1.
What does DNS stand
for?
Domain Name System and Domain Name
Service
Data Name System and Data Name Server
Domain Number Server and Domain Number
Service
2.
What does a DNS server
do?
It translates data between incompatible
systems
It translates IP addresses to fully qualified
domain names and vice versa
It translates IP addresses into MAC
addresses
3.
What is a zone? All the devices on a local area network
A portion of the name space that a DNS
server has authority over
A portion of the name space that no DNS
server has authority over
4.
What does it mean that a
DNS server has authority
over a zone?
That the server has access to the information
in the zone file (including IP addresses and
fully qualified domain names for the devices
in the zone)
That the DNS server administrator must give
his or her permission when a website in the
zone is visited
That the zone has not yet been set up
5.
Which of the following is
a fully qualified domain
name?
192.168.0.1
lasat.dk
www.lasat.dk.
6.
Indicate the domain in www.lasat
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www.lasat.dk www
lasat.dk
7.
Indicate the top-level
domain in www.lasat.dk
www.lasat.dk
.lasat
.dk
8.
What is a root server? A back-up server you must always have on
your local area network
A server that contains pointers to the
authoritative name servers for all top-level
domains
A server that contains direct pointers to all
DNS servers on the Internet
9.
What is a primary DNS
server?
The DNS server which has direct access to
the zone file with DNS information for a
domain
The DNS server which downloads a copy of
the zone file with DNS information
periodically
Another name for a root server
10.
What is an MX record? The record that specifies where undeliverable
mail should be sent to
The record that specifies the modem records
for a domain
The record that specifies which mail servers
handle mail for a domain